Caricature Israeli leaders E. Barak and D. Levy in the guise of Nazis. A cartoon from the Arab press.
1 Caricature of Jews
1.1 The first caricatured images of Jews
1.2 Thirteenth – nineteenth century
1.3 The twentieth century
1.3.1 A new type of anti-Semitic caricature
2 Participation of Jews in the development of the art of caricature
3 Caricature in the Jewish environment
4 Caricature in Israel
Caricature of Jews
The first caricatured images of Jews
Caricatured images of Jews appeared long before the crystallization in the plastic arts of the genre of caricature as printed satirical and humorous graphics.
Such, for example, are Roman terracotta statuettes of the 3rd-4th centuries AD with grotesquely Semitic faces found during excavations in the Rhine River basin (West Germany).
There are well-known pen caricature of the pawnbroker Yitzhak from Norwich and his family surrounded by devils (document from 1233; State Archive, London) and a cartoon of a certain Jew Mathesus (with a distinctive sign on his chest) found on the charter of the Town Hall (after 1551; City Archive, Prague).
Thirteenth – nineteenth century
The appearance of wooden sculptures at the entrance to German churches (often commissioned by the municipality) dates back to the 13th century: ugly Jews stuck to the backside or teats of a pig. Such groups, called the “Jewish pig”, soon appeared on the territory of present-day Austria, France, Belgium, from the 16th century. They were reproduced in engravings, and in France also on metal medallions that were in use, like engravings, until the beginning of the 20th century.
The themes of anti—Semitic engravings were also the use of Christian blood by Jews (see Blood Libel), desecration of the host and all sorts of vices allegedly inherent in Jews (greed, avarice, deception, lasciviousness, etc. Sometimes (especially in Germany) such engravings acquired an obviously pornographic character.
In England, where a cartoon portrait of a Jew appeared around 1720, during the discussion of the issue of granting Jews civil rights (1753-57), stereotypical caricatures of a hook-nosed and pointed-bearded Jew (financier or peddler /see Peddling /), endowed with both the traits of an animal and Satan.
This image was developed in the second half of the 18th century – the beginning of the 19th century . classics of English caricature, including J. Gilray and J. Rowlandson. In the middle of the 19th century , M. became the object of caricature . Montefiore and his associates.
With the spread of satirical illustrated magazines (especially since the 1870s), the number of anti-Semitic cartoons has increased dramatically in all European countries.
Jew (usurer, banker, wine merchant, lawyer, politician) as a symbol of Jewish dominance in all areas of life and the spread of Jewish domination in the world, it appears on the pages of the magazines “Libre Password” and “Psst!” (France), “Kladderadach”, “Der Grobian” (Germany), “Kikeriki” (Austria) and a number of others.
The Dreyfus case gave food to an avalanche of cartoons, and by the end of the 19th century – the beginning of the 20th century openly anti-Semitic publications appeared (“Anti-Semitic Bletter”, Dresden; “Pluvium”, St. Petersburg), in which the fantasy and sarcasm of their sworn cartoonists resulted in the expression of fierce hostility bordering on harassment.
The twentieth century
After the First World War, a new wave of anti-Semitic caricature in the states that arose on the ruins of Austria-Hungary gave rise to the discussion of the Jewish question during the preparation of election campaigns.
Caricatures of Jews were also made by White Guards in Russia during the Civil War, adherents of I. Pilsudski in Poland, an ardent anti-Semite P. Lazar in Romania and many others.
But the most crude and artistically primitive caricatures of Jews were published by the Nazi organ in Germany “Sturmer” (since 1924), in which the tone was set by the failed painter F. Ruprecht.
Using all the previously known themes and motives of anti-Semitic caricature (up to the “Jewish pig”), he interpreted the idea of fighting the Jews as a battle between the forces of light and the forces of darkness, portrayed Germany as a tree covered with “Jewish worms” sprayed with insecticide by a German in Nazi uniform, etc.
The catastrophe of European Jewry forces the publication of an anti-Semitic cartoon to be stopped for a while.
A new kind of anti-Semitic caricature
The formation of the State of Israel has brought to life a new kind of anti-Semitic caricature, in which the young country appears in the collective image of a sinister Jew.
Such cartoons appeared in the press of Arab countries, and in the Soviet Union in 1949-53, during the period of exposure of the “cosmopolitans” and the doctors’ cases were “enriched” by anti-Zionist attacks, in which the same anti-Semitic stereotypes were used (a hawk-nosed Jew with a magen-David on any part of his clothes, a Jewish doctor with a bloody knife, etc.).
After the Six-Day War, the repertoire of Soviet caricature was supplemented by a comparison of Magen—David with a swastika, a Jew personifying Israel with Hitler, and so on.
Most often, such cartoons appeared in the newspapers “Gudok”, “Red Star”, “Soviet Russia” and in the magazines “Crocodile” and “Peretz” (Kiev), as well as in anti-Zionist and openly anti-Semitic pamphlets and books like “Judaism without Embellishment” by T. Kichko (Kiev, 1963).
The Lebanese war caused the appearance in the Western press of cartoons close to the Soviet model. For example, in the English Guardian, a cartoon depicted a prisoner of Nazi camps looking with horror at Beirut, surrounded by Israeli tanks.
Similar cartoons were published by the American “San Francisco Chronicle”, “Arizona Republic”, “Los Angeles Herald Examiner” and a number of other periodicals.
Participation of Jews in the development of the art of caricature
The participation of Jews in the development of the art of caricature began in the 19th century and coincided with the development of revolutionary movements in Western Europe.
The most popular cartoonist of Italy in the 1830s-70s was Ch. Redenti, a Jew by birth. Around 1848, the Jewish artist V. Beck published and illustrated the satirical magazine “Zeitgeist” in Berlin, and in 1849 — the humorous magazine “Shari-Vari” (Vienna).
Nevakhovich (1817-50; son of L. Nevakhovich) published in 1846-49 in St. Petersburg the satirical magazine “Yeralash” (16 issues), which he himself supplied with cartoons.
T. Heine played a significant role in the artistic development of European caricature by his participation in the magazines “Jugend” (where since 1896 he performed cartoons simultaneously with the Jewish cartoonist E. Stern, 1876-1954), “Fliegende Bletter” and especially in the Simplicissimus founded by him (since 1896).
In 1905, during the revolutionary events in Russia, political cartoons were made by Jewish artists B. Anisfeld, Z. Grzhebin (1869-1929), I. Brodsky and others.
After the October Revolution in a variety of satirical publications (over 90 between 1917 and 1923), Jewish artists Beno (b. Telingater; 1876-1964), Samum (S. Umansky; 1888-1959), L. Brodaty (1889-1954; one of the first cartoonists of the newspaper Pravda in Soviet times), Be-Sha (B. Shapoval; 1895-1968), Yu. Ganf (1898-1973), A. Kanevsky (1898-1981), L. Kaplan (1899-1972) and B. Friedkin (1901–?), who published cartoons under the common pseudonyms “Deuce” and “Kafr”, Ro-See (Rosenfeld; 1900-42), B. Yefimov (Friedland; see M. Koltsov) and others.
By the mid-1920s, their ranks were replenished by E. Yevgan (Rappoport; 1905-48), V. Briskin (1906-82), B. Malkin (1908-72). Work for several (often very short-term) publications obliged artists to take care of the high quality and relevance of the caricature.
Since 1923, Crocodile has become the leading magazine of satire and humor (since 1932 it has been published by Pravda publishing house), which attracted the best satirists of the country to cooperate.
However, the containment by the party apparatus of criticism of the internal life of the state and the liquidation by 1934 of almost all satirical magazines knocked the creative ground out from under the feet of artists and leveled their manner. And although several new Jewish artists took up caricature in the following years (N. Lisogorsky, 1910-86; A. Reznichenko, 1916-73; L. Samoilov, 1918-88; M. Ushats, born in 1927; M. Bitny, born in 1929; K. Nevler, born in 1933, and others), satirical and humorous drawings (even of such virtuoso and observant graphics as L. Soifertis, 1911-96) on the pages of “Crocodile” are not distinguished by either sharpness or ingenuity.
It was only during the Second World War that anti-Nazi cartoons were inspired by a personal sense of anger and hatred. Anti-American and anti-Israeli cartoons of recent decades are mostly stereotyped and reflect the regular political attitudes of Soviet party organs.
In Western Europe, the Hungarian Jew I. Kelen (1896-1978) became famous for his 1919 cartoons of the participants of the Versailles Conference and representatives of various countries in the League of Nations.
Prominent British cartoonists were Sir M. Beerbohm (1872-1956) and Vicky (V. Weiss; 1913-66, in England since 1935), an employee of the Daily Mirror and other publications.
In France, Tim (L. Mittelber / Mittelberg/; 1919-2002) is especially popular for his caricatures of political figures in the “Yumanite”, “Express” and in the American “New York Times”, “Newsweek” and others, as well as parodies of paintings by Rembrandt and P. Cezanne.
One of the first Jewish cartoonists in the United States was F. B. Opper (1857-1937) – at the beginning of the 20th century. the initiator of a series of satirical stories in pictures (“comics”).
His example was followed by the Jewish satirists Rub (R. Goldberg; 1883-1970), M. Koenigsberg (1878-1945), El. Cap (A. J. Keplin; 1909-79; the satirical series “Lil Ebner”) – the cartoonist of the Herald Tribune, M. Gross (1895-1953), who performed a lot with cartoons in various newspapers, and also M. Fleischer (1899-1972; Popeye series), O. Soglov (1900-1975; The Little King series, 1933), J. Siegel (1914-96) and J. Schuster (1914-92) — the Superman series, 1938, and many others. J. Feifer (born in 1929) combined the form and structure of the “comic book” with political caricature.
A native of the Czech Republic, L. Haas (1901-83) based the anti-Nazi caricature on his own drawings from the time of his imprisonment in Teresine, and A. Shik (1894-1951; in the USA since 1934) in a series of cartoons “The New Order” (1941) embodied the full force of his hatred for the executioners of his native Lodz.
In the modern American press, D. Levin (born in 1926) and the cartoonist (since 1929) of the Washington Post Herblock (H. Block; 1909-2001) are best known for caricatures of politicians and artists in the New York Review of Books.
In terms of their artistic significance, the cartoons in The New Yorker S go beyond the usual framework of journalism. Steinberg, one of the most original graphic virtuosos, who creates satirical compositions from seals, finger prints and coins, photographs of buildings, etc. With caricatures, B. graphics sometimes performed. Shan and W. Gropper (1897-1977).
Caricature in the Jewish environment
Caricature in the Jewish environment for a long time did not occupy the position that it was assigned in the social and political life of non-Jewish society. Although occasionally there were cartoons devoted to intra-communal affairs (for example, the 1794 cartoon “Jerusalem Hospital”, reproducing an episode from a stage satire on the Sephardic administration /see Sephardim / hospitals in London, or the 1777 caricature of Rabbi Zechariah Padov on the notables of the community of Modena led by him), in the Jewish press (about two thousand editions from the end of the 17th century) until the 20th century. cartoons were not published.
Attempts to counter anti-Semitic publications with satirical magazines in Yiddish (“Sheigets”, 1870s, St. Petersburg; “Kikeriki”, from 1877, Vienna; “Der Yudisher Pak”, from 1894, London; “Pipifax”, from 1899, N.Y.—London; “Shlemil”, Germany) turned out to be ineffective.
After the First World War, Y. Gombarg (1880-1954) published professionally executed political and everyday cartoons in the Jewish newspaper “Freiheit” (USA) between 1919 and 1925.
In 1931, three satirical magazines with cartoons were simultaneously published in mandatory Palestine — “Naase ve-nishma”, “Ozer Dallim” and “Purimon”, then the cartoons began to appear in newspapers.
Caricature in Israel
The first permanent newspaper cartoonist was A. Navon (1909-96), who published in Davar in 1934-64 political cartoons, especially sharp and impressive — in the period The Wars of Independence.
Who started in 1947 in “Ba-Mahan” And. Since 1952, Stern has performed cartoons in “Iediot Aharonot”, “Maariv le-noar” and “Dvar ha-shavua”, where Pepper has been printed since 1949 (p. Weinreich; born in 1928, lived and studied in the Soviet Union in 1939-46), who transferred to Al Ha-Mishmar in 1973.
The most popular masters of caricature on the topics of the internal political life of Israel, public interest in which greatly increased after the creation of the state in 1948, were immigrants from Hungary Dosh (K. Gardosh; 1921-2000, in Israel since 1948) — an artist of the newspaper “Maariv” using a dynamic line to create an image-symbol (for example, “Isreelik”, or “Srulik” — a boy in a kibbutz hat and sandals), and Zeev (Ya. Farkash; 1923-2002), drawing cartoons for the newspaper “ha-Arez” in the complex compositions of which he often introduces caricatures of prominent political figures.
The work of Mike (M. Ronen, born in 1926), a native of Australia, whose sarcastic caricatures are made in cursory strokes with spots thrown over them, has been associated with the Jerusalem Post since 1949.
His younger colleague at the newspaper Ya. Kirshen (born in 1945) puts cartoons from his extensive series “Dry Bones” also in the New York Times.
Caustic caricatures of Israeli political figures are drawn for “Davar” (1964-66) and “Maariv” (since 1981) by Ya. Shilo (born 1937), who uses a strict line and shading, master of a wide catchy brushstroke Daryan (A. Daryan; born 1931) — artist of the newspaper “Maariv” since 1964 G., and O. Hofmekler (born in 1952, has been living in the USA since 1976), who works in an easel manner (tempera and oil on wood) for the magazines “Monitin”, “Politics” (both Israel), “Express” (France), “Penthouse” (USA) and others, author of a number of cartoons on the topics of Israel’s foreign policy.
Lurie (born in 1932, has been living in the USA since 1967) is widely known as the artist “Yediot Aharonot” before leaving Israel, publishing cartoons on foreign policy topics (often related to Israel) in various publications of European countries, the USA, Japan.
Avi Katz (born in 1949; “Davar” since 1983), Avner Katz (born in 1939; various newspapers since 1974), Nissim (N. Yehezkiyahu, born in 1961; “Jerusalem Post”, “Maariv”), Moshik (M. Lin, born in 1950; “Maariv” in 1976-77, “Dvar ha-shavua” since 1978), Shmulik (Sh. Katz, born in 1926; “Al ha-mishmar”since 1955, “Maariv” since 1976), Didi and Tsilya (spouses of Menusi: Jedidiya, born in 1926, Tsilya, born in 1930; “Yediot aharonot” since 1982), Gidon (G. Amihai, born in 1963; “Maariv” since 1984), AND . Rubinger (born 1964; “Ba-Mahane” since 1984) and others.
The magazine caricature with political satire features M. Kishka (born in 1954; “Et” since 1978), Avshalom (A. Aharon, born in 1961; “ha-Olam ha-ze”) and others.
A significant place in the caricature is occupied by criticism of everyday life, morals, humorous situations, to which Peri, also known in 1956-67 as a master of political caricature, devoted his work. Rosenfeld, 1912-92; “La-Ishsha”), artist of collections of cartoons Friedel (Friedel Stern; 1916-2006; “Et”, “London Doctor”), Jacksy (I. Jackson, born in 1941; “La-Ishsha”) and others.
Notice: The preliminary basis of this article was the article CARICATURE in EEE